This chapter focuses on some key elements of future sustainable resource use. It outlines the basic features of a sustainable socio-industrial metabolism in the European Union, considering both its bio-physical requirements and interlinkages with other world regions. The chapter reflects on historical developments and long-term future options such as carbon recycling and industrial photosynthesis. A major learning success resulted from the experience of increasing resource efficiency (and productivity) in the production of products and the delivery of services. In order to spur technology development towards resource-efficient energy systems, solarised multi-functional roofs and walls may be regarded as key products. Static functions, derivation of rainwater, insulation, humidity control and solar radiation use or deflection have been provided by different layers of constructions. Dematerialisation in terms of higher material efficiency in industry and households may mitigate climate change. The production, use, storage, recycling and disposal of every material requires energy. The use of renewable energies always requires non-renewable material resources.