This chapter seeks to demonstrate that business has a huge role to play in encouraging sustainable resource management. To tackle the enormous challenges ahead, simply improving efficiency in the production of goods and services by cutting material costs will not be sufficient. The chapter intends to outline the emerging field of resource policy. A strategic approach is described considering the role of competitiveness and innovation, the influence of barriers and incentives, and the scale and scope of system innovations. A central issue for any resource policy is related to costs for purchasing materials, that is to say the access to raw materials, the compliance costs for recycling and waste as well as other cost-related issues of environmental policy. The environmental consequences of resource use are only included in market prices if there is an active internalisation policy. Developing solutions that minimise material and energy input is to a large extent part of the economic interest.