In 1978 the Chinese government initiated economic reforms and an open policy for trade and investment, which stimulated market demand, entrepreneurial activity and access to advanced technology. China is struggling to deal with the costs of environmental degradation, including impacts on air, water and food. Regarding sustainable development, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), especially the social enterprise, play a key role in China. There are two kinds of NGO organization: one has a top-down structure with a long history and supported partially by the government; the others are established by non-governmental figures, and typically focus on environmental protection, poverty relief and women's issues. Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) is one of the top ten largest pulp and paper companies in the world founded by the famous Chinese Indonesian Huang Yicong. APP-China has focused on operations in the Yangtze River and Pearl River Delta since 1992, and has invested in several large world-leading pulp and paper companies.