Biodiversity has a range of characteristics that, together with the challenges inherent in communication across sectors, explain why improved science–policy interfaces are needed for the sustainable use of biodiversity. These challenges include complexity, unknowns and uncertainties, variable and interconnected temporal and spatial scales, irreversibility and human dependence on biodiversity. As well as these challenges, in this chapter we also explore the current factors limiting policy and science actors’ engagement with knowledge brokerage (i.e. lack of incentives, time and guidance). We close the chapter with positive and practical recommendations aimed at individuals, teams and institutions to improve biodiversity science brokerage. These recommendations have been developed in the SPIRAL project, jointly with scientists and decision-makers, and we also include recommendations based on our own experiences of knowledge brokerage within the project.