The numerous studies in the etiology of criminal and delinquent behavior have, by and large, constituted an applied field, where research might instead also have been oriented toward basic social theory or at least toward theories of the middle range. The interdependence of the origin and function of social norms and the origin of deviations is seen very clearly in societies which make political activities criminal. The concern among social scientists with white-collar crime tends to bring long-neglected relationships between criminal behavior, criminal law, penal sanctions, and social structure into focus. Although white-collar crime today in itself is a very important practical problem, its research importance does not lie within the specific field itself. A trivial conclusion to be drawn from this is that low socioeconomic status and associated factors cannot be considered crucial in the explanation of crime in general; that is, if white-collar crimes were to be considered crimes.