The black-politics literature is increasingly characterized by an examination of the impact of black political participation. This is especially true of the urban-black-politics literature. This chapter analyzes the impact of increased black political participation and mayoral leadership on selected policies and actions of local government in Birmingham, Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. One of the strongest relationships in the black-politics literature is the relationship between increased black political participation and blacks’ obtaining a more equitable share of municipal employment. Consistent with prior research findings, increased black political participation in Birmingham and New Orleans is strongly associated with blacks receiving a more equitable share of municipal employment opportunities. The category of governmental policies and actions in which increased black political participation has exerted its weakest influence in both cities is minority-business participation programs. As late as 1970 there was no black representation on Birmingham’s boards and commissions.