The most serious failing of black mayors has been their unwillingness to play a major leadership role in moving the quest for black political incorporation beyond the narrow confines of elected office. As the political significance of the civil rights movement began to wane and the electoral strength of black voters began to surge—especially in local races—in the decade of the 1970s, black mayors began to ascend to the apex of the leadership hierarchy in the black community. Black mayoral victories symbolized defiant acts of self-liberation. Peter Eisinger underscores the proactive nature of affirmative action programs in black mayoral cities. The search for power by blacks in the American political system has witnessed the emergence of black mayors as the unrivaled champions of black social, economic, and political aspirations. The high-pitched, emotional campaigns run by black mayors frequently produce unrealistic expectations about what a black mayor can accomplish.