The National Conference of Black Political Scientists was one of the organizations that grew out of this awareness of the need to organize and the virtue of organizing. The idea of a separate black organization unmoved by the dynamics of American Political Science Association struck them as a retreat into irrelevance and acceptance of second-class status. Black elected officials, particularly big-city mayors, congresspersons, and the heads of a handful of civil rights organizations, became the acknowledged and unchallenged black leaders. At the local level, black organizations are beholden to black leaders for their survival. Black political scientists have been more inclined to be cheerleaders for, than constructive critics of, our leaders and these developments. A smattering of black social scientists have begun to raise questions about the role of contemporary black leadership and about the efficacy of certain intervention strategies.