This chapter utilizes data from the National Survey of Black Americans to examine African Americans’ reactions to being underemployed. The gross effects of underemployment on the political participation of African Americans are small, and at times, they appear to be in the opposite direction from what relative deprivation theory anticipates. Respondents were asked whether they belonged to any organizations or took part in any activities that represent the interests and viewpoints of African-American people. If economic opportunities continue to contract and African-American workers become increasingly marginalized, understanding such issues will become even more crucial. The chapter examines the effects of one kind of economic adversity—underemployment—on the political behavior of African Americans. Sub-unemployment, unemployment, low hours, low in come, intermittent employment, and mismatch underemployment are contrasted to adequate employment for each of the types of political expression. Net of the correlates of political behavior, the underemployed remain less likely than adequately employed workers to participate in orthodox political activities.