The fight against corruption includes three major components: institutional reforms; collective action and leadership of governments, civil society, and private sector institutions; and, most important, data, information, and knowledge. The work that the Bank is planning to do on governance and anticorruption emphasizes both process and substance. In transition economies, bureaucratic bribery may be more common because the bureaucracy is the main locus of decisionmaking. Russia and Ukraine are rated as extremely corrupt in the banking sector. Where executive political will exists, nongovernmental organizations and civil society may act as partners with the government in implementing anticorruption programs. In the context of anticorruption efforts, major strides are taking place in developing and applying a well-structured technology to grassroots participation. The implementation of institutional reform benefits from the participatory process developed for anticorruption activities. A better understanding of the causes and costs of corruption will probably reveal that improved measurement of corruption indicators is also necessary.