Although the political salience of environmental issues seems to be decreasing already, only a few policy and decision makers will deny the importance of finding solutions to the diversity of environmental risks which are threatening our way of living. This chapter discusses the role of the consumer in environmental policy. It points out the strategic importance of consumer behavior. The chapter analyzes consumer behavior and consumer motives from the perspective of social dilemmas and the socio-psychological factors that play a role in choice situations like these. It can be concluded that the present awareness of environmental risks forms a weak behavioral motive because large uncertainties, emotional distance, and judgmental bias break down the signal value of the risk. The chapter shows which knowledge is needed for consumers to reduce uncertainties and to enhance pro-environmental choices. It also discusses the relationship between the public perception of the risks of global warming and the willingness to undertake action to reduce these risks.