This chapter is concerned with the phenomenon of somatic prejudice, and with the mutual relevance of evolutionary-psychology theories of attractiveness and studies of race and ethnic relations. It summarizes some theory and evidence regarding the evolutionary psychology of attractiveness, with special emphasis on principles of attractiveness likely to be most relevant to understanding somatic prejudice in modern multiracial societies. The chapter focuses on the racially stratified society of Bahia, Brazil, summarizing some of the relevant social history. It discusses implications for evolutionary psychology and for studies of race and ethnic relations. When ethnic groups differ in physical appearance, standards of attractiveness may affect ethnic relations, and individuals' and groups' social position, including their bargaining power in the mating and marriage market. Studies of relations between groups frequently note positive or negative responses to the physical appearance of members of different groups.