Cross-cultural and international research has the potential to test the generality of psychological theories, to expand the range of variables available for study, and to identify phenomena that are widespread or universal (Lonner & Adamopoulos, 1 997). With regard to gender development, cross-cultural research has made some important contributions. Cognitive theories about gender have been tested in various cultural settings to investigate their generalizabil ity (e.g. , De Lisi & Gallagher, 1 99 1 ; R. H. Munroe, Shimmin, & Munroe, 1 984). The range of naturally occurring variations has been used to explore the origins of gender typed behaviors, as in studies of cultures that varied in the degree to which girls and boys were differentially assigned household tasks (Whiting & Edwards, 1 988) . Moreover, pancultural stereotypes about women and men, girls and boys, have been identified through cross-national research (Will iams & Best, 1 990a, 1 990b ). Nonetheless, to a great extent the potential of cross-cultural and international research remains unreal ized, in part because of the methodological pitfalls in cross-cultural research and in part because of the lack of conceptual clarity in the study of gender development. In this chapter some of those pitfal ls are identified and the conceptual distinctions are highl ighted. Examples are drawn as much as possible from cross-cultural and non-Western research. Then, the literature on gender development in cross-cultural perspective is reviewed in three areas : (a) development of gender constancy and gender identity, (b) development of knowledge of gender stereotypes, and (c) adolescents ' gender-related ideals .