Many psychological theories and interventions that prevail have originated in the West and are based on particular conceptions of mental health and the individual that have largely evolved within a Western cultural and historical context. This chapter looks at alternative conceptions of health and the individual as developed by Indian psychologists originating in an Indian cultural context. This different understanding of mental health, which is based on a different definition of the individual, has implications for treatment in India, as well as the potential to significantly contribute to and expand Western concepts of health and interventions. The recent growth of indigenous psychologies originating in non-Western cultures such as India presents an opportunity for psychology to be built on a broader range of cultures and human experience.