This chapter was originally written in 1962, when transcultural psychiatry was in its infancy. Shortly after completing my psychiatric training, I had the good fortune to work for three years within the Yoruba culture of Nigeria. Between 1957 and 1959, I practiced as government psychiatrist for the British Colonial Service at Aro Hospital, Abeokuta. During this clinical period, I became aware of the expertise of Yoruba traditional healers in treating a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders, and during 1961 to 1963, I returned to research their treatment methods in detail.