This chapter was originally written in 1962, when transcultural psychiatry was in its infancy. Shortly after completing my psychiatric training, I had the good fortune to work for three years within the Yoruba culture of Nigeria. Between 1957 and 1959,1 practiced as government psychiatrist for the British Colonial Service at Aro Hospital, Abeokuta. During this clinical period, I became aware of the expertise of Yoruba traditional healers in treating a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders, and during 1961 to 1963,1 returned to research their treatment methods in detail.