Despite more than 15 years of intense international debate, the rights of indigenous peoples over their traditional knowledge (TK) remain largely unprotected. Recent years have seen a welcome increase in national and international efforts to rectify this situation. This has included the adoption of a range of law, policy and administrative measures. It also includes a wide range of projects, programmes and processes designed to strengthen the role of TK in local, national and international development planning, environmental conservation and mitigation strategies and sustainable use of biological diversity.