II.2 The EU burden-sharing agreement
DOI link for II.2 The EU burden-sharing agreement
II.2 The EU burden-sharing agreement book
The EU burden-sharing agreement was the result of a series of discussions among Member States, concluded under the Dutch presidency. The basis for the agreement was a 30-page report on the so-called ‘Triptych Approach’ which was presented for the first time at an informal workshop of the EU’s Ad Hoc Group on Climate on 16 and 17 January 1997 in Zeist, the Netherlands.12 The Triptych Approach, developed by experts from the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, separated the national economy into three sectors: the domestic sector, the energy-intensive, export-oriented sector, and the electricity generation sector. CO2 emissions per capita from the domestic sector did not vary significantly across Member States, although the cohesion countries in general emitted less. In the case of the heavy industry and in particular the power generation sectors, however, considerable differences existed across the EC. Sweden and France for example depended greatly on carbon-free nuclear and hydro-power, whereas Danish and German electricity production was heavily coal-based. By using this sectoral approach, the Triptych Approach clearly demonstrated and justified the need for distinguishing between various countries when setting targets. The Triptych Approach analysed emissions from the various sectors in each Member State, taking into account economic growth, population changes and climate-adjusted energy use (heating and cooling). On the basis of this analysis it set out four variants for Member State targets, depending on reductions to be achieved in the domestic sector and energy efficiency improvements in the energy-intensive sector.