II.5 The ethical dimension of emissions trading
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II.5 The ethical dimension of emissions trading book
The upstream-downstream choice as a point of regulation exists for many but not all sources of GHG emissions. It exists for CO2 emissions from fossilfuel combustion. In principle it exists for manufactured gases such as HFCs, but in practice the number of downstream sources is too large, so the only practical option is an upstream design. Process emissions such as CO2 emissions from cement, N2O emissions from adipic acid and PFCs from aluminium production can only be regulated at the point of production.