The issues addressed in this book are not new. Conflict over the control and use of forests and forest lands has been in the political arena for as long as local people and the state have shared an interest in the same resource. We, therefore, need to examine the historical pattern of annexations of forest and land by the state, the struggles of the people in defence of livelihood-related forest access, and policy responses that have led to the emergence of participatory forest management (PFM). These must be understood in terms of long-term historical processes, including, in particular, the emergence of powerful and centralized state forestry agencies.