Nepal’s plains area presents an entirely different management challenge from the hills. The extensive high-value sal forests have been under clearance for agricultural land since the malaria eradication programme of the 1950s and 1960s, and the rapidly increasing population depend on the receding forests for fuelwood and construction timber. Despite handover of much of the remaining forest to local communities under the auspices of community forestry (CF), there is disagreement over the appropriate institutional arrangements to ensure the sustainable management of the forests and the equitable distribution of its products.