Andhra Pradesh was formed in the 20th century from component regions with diverse backgrounds, similarly to Orissa, and has struggled to become a unified state. It comprises an extremely diverse range of agro-ecological areas, from (mainly tribal-populated) forested hill in the north-east to arid red sanders forests in the south. Earlier participatory forest management (PFM) initiatives in areas under the Madras Presidency areas were shunned by the state government in the 1950s, and it was only with the introduction of joint forest management (JFM) in 1992 in Andhra Pradesh that local people’s forest use was again formally legitimated. JFM implementation was heavily supported by the World Bank from 1995 to 2000 and 2002 to 2007.