ABSTRACT

Wherever collective agreement is sought over participation in forest management, a ‘deal’ is struck among the parties at the outset, whether in self-initiated groups or state-initiated processes. The nature of PFM deals varies in important respects both between and within Nepal and India, reflecting the varying interests and bargaining power of the actors in the different regional political ecologies. Table 10.1 summarizes the different PFM deals in the Indian states and Nepalese regions studied in Part II. As we have seen, the fundamental difference has been that in Nepal, forest management has been handed over to local community forest user groups (CFUGS), whereas in India, forest departments have only given local people inducements (such as rights to non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection, wage labour and a share in the ‘final harvest’) to protect and work on state forest management.