Advanced industrial societies struggle to provide accessible and appropriate healthcare for culturally and linguistically diverse populations (Healy and McKee, 2004). These are long-standing and familiar problems, but our failure to engage with them contributes to flawed understandings, inappropriate responses and wasted resources (Atkin and Chattoo, 2007). Taking this as a starting point, the purpose of this chapter is to provide a general analytical framework, in which to make sense of the emerging debate on ethnicity, fertility and reproductive technologies. I make no apologies for its broad scope.There is little discussion and much less research exploring ethnicity and fertility (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2004), making it difficult to establish a credible evidence base on which to base interventions (Balen and Crawshaw, 2006) and, perhaps more importantly, creating the potential, as debates about ethnicity and fertility develop, to ‘reinvent the wheel’ and not learn from previous empirical and theoretical insights (Bhopal, 2007).