In an editorial in Science, coinciding with the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual conference in 2005, Alan Leshner addressed the growing tensions between science and society (Leshner, 2005). As research tackles value-laden issues, for example in areas such as therapeutic or research cloning and stem cell research, so, he argues, is the public increasingly claiming a voice in the regulation of science and in the shaping of research agendas. Science, he suggests, is moving beyond the period when it was evaluated on the criteria of potential benefits and risk, to a future in which value-related dimensions will need to be taken on board. Rather than rejecting such changes, Leshner calls for scientists to adopt an inclusive approach and through open and rational discourse to find common ground with other communities on the ethical, legal and social implications of science and technology. This challenge to the traditional independence of science was paralleled by a call in Nature for ‘upstream engagement’ – the involvement of non-specialists to bring a broader range of views into decision making on research agendas (Nature, 2004).