In 2006, I was invited to participate in a seminar arranged by the Institute of Agricultural Research in Peru (INIA, Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria) on the creation of a national official register for landraces and traditional varieties of potato and maize. This register was to be an officially recognized list that would be supported by the government, where different users could enter and access information about Peruvian traditional varieties of potato and maize. The main purpose of the seminar was to discuss possible objectives of the register with a number of people involved in genetic resources conservation and use within the country, including research institutes, farmers’ associations and organizations working with indigenous communities. During the seminar, several participants argued that one of the most important objectives of the register should be to officially recognize traditional farmers as the originators of the huge biodiversity of potatoes and maize that are conserved and cultivated in Peru.