One of the most pressing issues facing countries immediately after conflict is managing the reintegration of refugees and displaced persons. The numbers of persons uprooted from their homes and lands may range from the hundreds of thousands to the millions, as in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Iraq. Peace agreements set out mechanisms for addressing the land and property claims of displaced persons, and practice in this area has also been guided by a number of key standards that reflect basic international legal obligations accepted by most countries. One of the most important nonbinding but influential “soft law” standards is the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, which clarify states’ responsibility to address displacement of people within their own borders, in contrast to international refugee law, which protects persons who have fled their country of habitual residence. More recently, the 2005 Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons (also known as the Pinheiro Principles) have asserted a right to post-conflict restoration of property to displaced persons on the basis of international best practice.