The Jos Plateau, located in central northern Nigeria, is a unique region in West Africa, with a temperate climate and an abundance of freshwater supplies that have allowed it to become a centre for the production of temperate vegetables through irrigated agriculture. This chapter takes a historical perspective to consider how human-environment interactions have led to economic opportunities, which have, in turn, shaped the environment in this peri-urban area. The chapter focuses on dry season irrigated vegetable production (DSIVP) and draws on the results of a survey of farmers at four sites of production in the Jos peri-urban area. The four sites form a north-south trajectory along the centre of the plateau, with contrasting proximity to urban areas and access to markets. The aim is to determine the factors affecting irrigated vegetable production at each location and to identify constraints for the future. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods framework (Scoones, 1998), we discuss social and environmental changes in the Jos peri-urban interface and the sustainability of livelihoods associated with DSIVP.