Few observers doubt that corporate environmental management plays a significant role in shaping the responses of business firms to regulation and in advancing techniques of environmental protection. For the most part, however, the literature on corporate environmental management remains exhortative and anecdotal rather than empirically grounded and systematic. Hence, despite some serious research on the topic (Prakash 2000; Reinhardt 2000; Coglianese and Nash 2001; Amaral et al. 2000), we still have only limited understanding of why some firms have committed, competent environmental management but others do not. We also do not know very much about how government can best foster high-quality environmental management, nor do we know what we should not expect from management-based strategies alone (as compared with what we can expect from traditional, directive government regulation).