This paper aims to review the use of the system known as the non-fossil fuel obligation in the accorded of renewable energy sources in England and Wales in recent years, and to evaluate the results of its use. In order to undertake such as assessment it is necessary to begin by considering the aims of renewables support in England and Wales, since once these are understood in will be possible to go to assess the success of policy in achieving them and perhaps to conclude that the most serious problems lie in the aims themselves. We will then move on to outline the rules set down and the instruments used for the support of renewables in England and Wales, before giving extensive consideration to the procedures and outcomes of the Fossil Fuel Levy and the Non-Fossil Obligation. Arrangements in Scotland are quite different and are not considered here. Particular attention will be paid to the problems experienced in the functioning of the NFFO-FFL system, and, finally, to the consideration of possible future options for renewables support.