Emergence of the concept of multihop ad hoc wireless networks, low-power electronics, low-power, short-range wireless communication radios, and intelligent sensors is considered the major technological enabler for deployment of sensor networks (SNs). The goal in this survey is to identify key architectural and design issues related to sensor networks, critically evaluate the proposed solutions, and outline the most challenging research directions. The evaluation has three levels of abstraction:
• Individual components on SN nodes (processor, communication, storage, sensors and/or actuators, and power supply)
• Node level • Distributed networked system level
Special emphasis is placed on architecture, system software, to some extent, and new challenges related to using new types of components in networked systems. The evaluation is guided by anticipated technology trends and current and future applications. The main conclusion of the analysis is that the architectural and synthesis emphasis will be shifted from computation and, to some extent communication, components to sensors, actuators, and different types of sensors and applications that require distinctly different architectures at all three levels of abstraction.