In 2000, worldwide pharmaceutical R&D spending was US$ 53 billion, and is expected to continue steady growth of 10% each year to a value of US$ 77 billion in 2005 (Credit Suisse First Boston). Industry analysts consider that approximately 40% of the cost of bringing a NAS to market goes on synthesis, formulation, and preclinical research, and the remaining 60% on clinical development and licensing (Figure 5.1).