Applications in Scanning Probe Microscopy
DOI link for Applications in Scanning Probe Microscopy
Applications in Scanning Probe Microscopy book
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and the subset scanning-force microscopy (SFM) have seen tremendous development and progress in the past two decades since Binnng et al.  introduced the atomicforce microscope (AFM) in 1986. AFM has become an essential scientific research tool, particularly in the field of nanoscale science and technology. Because of its versatility, SPM has emerged as one of the techniques of choice for the investigation of single molecule phenomena in areas of scientific research from molecular biology to nanoscale fabrication. SPM is also playing an increasing role as a surface characterization technique for industrial applications; this is particularly important in semiconductor industry as devices approach length scales below the 100-nm regime. Some of the examples for industrial applications are (1) magnetic force microscopy (MFM) as applied in the data storage industry for the characterization of magnetic domains, (2) scanning capacitance microscopy for the characterization of gate dopant density, and (3) as a general surface roughness characterization of ultrathin films. With further understanding of these existing techniques and with more novel variations currently under development, SPM will become an even more important tool in scientific research and nanotechnology applications.