Seeds are used for propagation of the species, as food for humans, or feed for animals, and are the result of a series of activities that include planting, harvesting, processing or conditioning, and storage. Deterioration of seeds can occur at any time from planting to final use either through the natural aging process or due to damage caused by microorganisms, viruses, insects, birds, or rodents. Fungi that attack seeds are classified into either field or storage fungi on the basis of their ecological requirements. The invasion and successful establishment of, and seed deterioration by storage fungi is influenced by a number of factors which may act alone or in combination. The losses due to deterioration of grains by storage fungi can be reduced by the following methods: avoiding damage to seeds during harvesting, processing, and threshing; storage conditions; reducing seed moisture to safe limits; and seed treatment.