This chapter shows that depending on their prime applications, different industries design pipes with different emphasis and using different criteria. Pipelines must be designed for many types of load, including but not limited to, the stress due to pressure generated by the flow, external pressure by fluid if the pipe is submerged underwater, external pressure generated by the weight of earth and by live loads on underground pipelines, loads due to thermal expansion, earthquakes, etc. The static earth load is often insignificant for designing high-pressure steel pipes used for long distance transportation of oil and natural gas. Depending on individual cases, many other loads may need to be considered in the design of pipelines. For high-pressure pipes, analysis and design are generally focused on the stress, deformation, and failure caused by high internal pressure. Designing a pipeline to withstand earthquakes is complicated because a strong earthquake can damage the pipe in many ways.