DOI link for Monochromators/Beamlines
Now that the optical elements of a beamline design have been described individually, all that remains is to proceed with the detailed design of the complete beamline, coupling as well as possible the source to the experiment. Since the beamline will be intended for particular experiments, knowledge of the requirements of these experiments is necessary. This chapter discusses monochromators which are now felt to represent the best designs for the future. The designation "toroidal/spherical grating monochromator", TGM/SGM, is meant to describe the simplest type of soft x-ray monochromator: except for a rotation of the grating, everything is fixed in space. A toroidal grating monochromator consisting of a grating and an exit slit. The Rowland conditions are fulfilled with few optical components at grazing incidence and with a constant overall length of the monochromator. A plane grating monochromator (PGM) employs a plane grating for dispersing the radiation, while requiring additional, non-plane elements for sagittal and meridional focusing.