Pulp and paper plants are intensive users of raw water, requiring up to 20,000 gallons of water per ton of product. Some paper plants and kraft mills utilize static screens and rotary fine screens in their waste treatment process, prior to clarification, to remove and/or recover floating and suspended fibers and other particles that might hinder sedimentation. Other fine screen applications in paper and pulp mills include broke thickening, save-all, and Whitewater screening. Food processing, steel mills, petro-chemical plants, refineries, textile, and other large manufacturing plants also require the use of mechanical screening equipment. Irrigation and other open-channel water distribution projects in the western and southwestern United States may use traveling water screens, belt screens, or bar screens to protect pumping equipment at remote pump stations. Large surface water treatment plants and desalination plants may employ traveling water screens, drum screens, bar screens, or passive screens to screen raw intake water as the first step in the treatment process.