First developed in Germany at I. G. Farben by Professor Walter Reppe and his colleagues during the 1930s, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was subsequently widely used as a blood-plasma substitute and extender during World War II. It has the advantages of being nonantigenic, requiring no cross-matching and avoiding the dangers of infectious diseases inherent in blood. PVP, because it becomes sticky when wetted by water and many solvents, is used extensively as a tablet binder. Tablets bound with PVP exhibit reliable rates of drug dissolution, which can also permit its use in sustained-release preparations. PVP and its copolymers are used as a thickener, dispersing agent, lubricant and binder in the cosmetics industry. The polymers are particularly suitable adjuvants for skin cleansing and protection preparations, and hair tints and dressings. PVP improves the solubility of dye-based inks to give a greater color value per weight of dye. In pigmented inks it increases tinctorial strength, dispersion stability, viscosity and gloss.