The membrane filter (MF), most probable number (MPN), and direct pour plate procedures can be used to enumerate and identify Fecal streptococci in water and wastewater. The terms Fecal streptococcus and Lancefield's group D streptococcus have been used synonymously. When used as indicators of fecal pollution, the following species and varieties are implied: S. faecalis, S. faecalis liquefaciens, S. faecalis zymogenes, S. faecium, S. bovis, and S. equinus. Fecal streptococci data verify fecal pollution and may provide additional information concerning the recency and probable origin of pollution. The occurrence of Fecal streptococci in water indicates fecal contamination by warm-blooded animals. Further identification of streptococci types present in the sample may be obtained by biochemical characterizations. The enterococcus group is a subgroup of the fecal streptococci that includes S. faecalis, S. faecium, S. gallinarum, and S. avium. The enterococci portion of the fecal streptococcus group is a valuable bacterial indicator for determining the extent of fecal contamination of recreational surface waters.