The potato breeding and testing programs in the United States are located in diverse geographic areas and serve multiple market interests. Breeding programs are conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) or land grant university personnel. The major objectives of the potato breeding programs in the United States are quite similar. They are yield enhancement, improved raw product quality, pest resistance, improved storage characteristics, and improved processing characteristics. This chapter discusses these and other related breeding objectives. Potato breeders in the North Central and Northeast may select round, white– or red-skinned potatoes whereas russet skinned cultivars are preferred in the Pacific Northwest states. Some cultivars have been found to be susceptible to herbicides that are registered for use on potatoes, and therefore trials may include screening for herbicide susceptibility. The growth habit of the plant may influence other characteristics such as yield and disease resistance. Centennial Russet is a fresh market potato grown largely in Colorado and California.