The design and construction of joints and connections is the most important consideration in precast concrete structures. Their purpose is to transmit forces between structural members and/or to provide stability and robustness. In addition to the actions of forces, connection design must consider the hazards of fire, accidental damage, effects of temporary construction and inaccurate workmanship, and durability. Additional forces unique to a precast structure are generated owing to relative displacements and rotations between elements. These movements must be properly assessed and designed for - even though the relevant information may not be available in codes of practice. Plain concrete also applies to such units as hollow core floors where reinforcement is provided in one direction only.