The term “sustainability” is currently very popular. Industries and organizations realize the benefits of protecting the future while succeeding in the present. In the present, sustainability is most often defined as incorporating three pillars into design: economics, environmental, and social. However, the general concepts of sustainability have been in use for millennia. The design and construction of Roman aqueducts for drinking water distribution were so robust they have lasted centuries, with dozens of aqueducts built as early as 300 BC still standing today, and the “Roman Road” still being used for movement of traffic. The Iroquois Native American confederacy has been in place since approximately the 12th century and uses the concept of sustainability in their constitution. Finally, today, there is a significant push for many sustainability initiatives, including more fuel-efficient vehicles on the roadway. Fuel-efficient vehicles address all three pillars of sustainability, by reducing fuel consumption (economics), decreasing emissions (environmental), and allowing more diverse transportation options for consumers (social or society). There are literally hundreds of existing books on sustainability discussing these and other concepts, but in order to demonstrate the development of sustainability overall, documents developed by the United Nations will demonstrate how sustainability has been qualified and quantified over the past forty years. To then understand sustainability within the context of civil engineering, the American Society of Civil Engineers’ position on sustainability will be evaluated. This chapter sets the stage for the discussion on sustainability in civil engineering which will be presented throughout this textbook.