This chapter introduces the main aspects related to the modern understanding of conservation, starting from the definition of cultural heritage buildings and ending in heritage management. It is devoted to the modern approach and conservation criteria of historical structures. In modern times, cultural heritage has received a strong scientific attention, and today, the approach to conservation is outlined by international charters and recommendations. Heritage management involves investigation, documentation, interpretation, presentation, maintenance, intervention works and education. Interpretation refers to the full range of potential activities intended to enhance the understanding of cultural heritage and increase public awareness. This phase is based on the information gathered during documentation and represents an essential phase for an adequate identification of salient features and for the evaluation of built cultural heritage. The ISCARSAH recommendations for the analysis, conservation and structural restoration of architectural heritage include two parts, namely, Principles and Guidelines.