This chapter introduces the reader to the main structural materials adopted along the history, with particular reference to masonry and timber, the associated technology and their main uses. It addresses the development of construction materials up to the end of the 20th century, that is, when steel and concrete became the main protagonists of structural engineering. Masonry can be built with a single material or with a mixture of materials, with several layers of different constitution and elements of different sizes. Stone represents the strongest, most used and most durable material of the past, usually preferred for structures of the greatest importance. In the broadest sense, mortar is a workable paste used to bind stone or brick units together and build masonry elements. Foundations should also prevent undue movements and excessive deformation, the two most relevant design criterion for modern structures.