The purpose of any wastewater treatment plant is to convert the components in raw wastewater into a harmless final effluent for discharge to a receiving body of water, essentially to return this municipal wastewater safely back into the water cycle and to safely dispose of the solids (biosolids) produced in the process. The primary means of accomplishing this for municipal wastewater is through the use of a range of biological processes. This chapter presents a brief insight into the various factors affecting the design, operation, and management of municipal wastewater treatment systems by addressing the following topics: overview of wastewater regulations, municipal wastewater characteristics, wastewater plant design considerations, wastewater treatment options, overview of advanced wastewater treatment technologies, sludge disposal considerations, and wastewater reuse options. An application section completes the chapter with six Illustrative Examples related to the general subject of municipal wastewater treatment and wastewater management.