Pollution-prevention strategies offer a cost-effective means of minimizing the generation of waste while facilitating compliance with local, state, and federal environmental and health and safety regulations. Source reduction is the first step in the traditional hierarchy of integrated waste management options and represents the most preferable of the available waste generation and pollution prevention steps. Although this integrated waste management approach includes treatment and ultimate disposal, the concepts of pollution prevention that are highlighted in this chapter are focused on the first two waste management options (i.e., source reduction and closed-looped recycling), particularly as they apply to water resource management. This chapter provides an overview of pollution prevention concepts through a discussion of the shifting waste management paradigm, the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) pollution prevention strategy, the waste management hierarchy, pollution prevention opportunity assessments, pollution prevention incentives, deterrents to pollution prevention, and options for water recycling and reuse. An applications section provides six Illustrative Examples related to pollution prevention principles and approaches.