This chapter is concerned with the role of optimization in water management studies. It attempts to present the optimization procedures that are available to the practicing engineer, particularly as they apply to the environment. The presentation includes both a traditional and a linear programming approach to solving water management-related problems. Chapter topics included are an introduction to the optimization process, the history of optimization, the scope of optimization, general analytical formulation of optimization, traditional optimization applications, and linear programming applications. An application section provides six Illustrative Examples on traditional applications and three Illustrative Examples of linear programming techniques applied to water management related problems.