A host of water properties that should be considered in any water analysis include: pH, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). For wastewater samples, standard water analysis includes: pH, DO, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), nutrients (N and P), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and biological oxygen demand (BOD) as well as general water quality indicators such as oil and grease. Elements that should also be included in the analysis are iron, manganese, and a range of potentially toxic metals (lead, arsenic, copper, etc.) that may have ecological impacts as well as human health standards. The monitoring and measurement of these pollutants in water and wastewater is a necessary component of effective water management. In addition, concerns over potential terrorist acts against drinking water infrastructure have elevated the need for robust water system monitoring and analysis programs for both routine and emergency monitoring situations. This chapter highlights sampling method selection for surface and groundwater; standard practice for sample collection, documentation, and handling; sample containers and preservation methods; analytical methods; and appropriate statistical analyses of results. An applications section includes six Illustrative Examples related to water monitoring and analysis concepts.