Anaemia of chronic disease may complicate infection, malignancy, connective tissue diseases, Crohn’s, and chronic renal failure. In chronic renal failure erythropoetin is frequently used to correct anaemia. Sideroblastic anaemia may be congenital or acquired. Sideroblasts are erythroblasts with iron deposited in a ring around the nucleus which can be demonstrated using a prussian blue stain. Causes of macrocytosis without megaloblastic anaemia: hypothyroidism, reticulocytosis, liver disease, aplastic anaemia, pregnancy, zidovudine, and azathioprine. Hereditary spherocytosis is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. Adults with sickle cell anaemia suffer from numerous complications including: dactylitis due to microinfarction, more common in childhood, and osteomyelitis frequently due to salmonella. Hairy cell leukemia is a rare haematological malignancy, characterized by blast cells which have spiculated cytoplasmic surfaces giving a chairy’ appearance. Splenectomy may cause remission for a period of months to years but this condition is resistant to usual specific therapy for leukaemia.