ABSTRACT

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Clean Water Act of the United States covers several heavy metals and their compounds. The US also enacted the Lead Contamination Control Act of 1988, the Lead and Copper Rule in 1991, and the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act in 2011. One of the important early directives in Europe was the Urban Waste Water Directive, 1991, followed by the Water Framework Directive in 2000. In Canada, the Federal Water Policy of Canada emphasized the promotion of the “polluter pays” principle. The Canada Water Act 1985 (last amended 2014) devoted a whole section to “Pollution of Waters.” In Australia, the Water Act 2007 is a major piece of legislation, and the National Water Quality Management Strategy (NWQMS) was also formulated in 1992. The Brazilian Water Act was framed as early as in 1934. In South Africa, the Water Law Principles of 1996 was followed by other important initiatives. Eritrea in Africa published a “heavy metals regulation” in 2003; China framed the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (“10-Point Water Plan”) in 2015; and India enacted the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act in 1974, and the Environment (Protection) Act in 1986.